Redundancy takes many forms and it makes for clunky, dull writing. Below I shall give a few examples.
When words and punctuation are redundant, stop with the quotation:
- “Stop!” he shouted.
- “Why?” he asked.
When the whole concept is embodied elsewhere, the underlined word or phrase can be eliminated:
- She sat down.
- …she thought to herself.
- and etc.
And, finally, don’t use two–or more–words when one would do. Simply choose the strongest, or the one closest to the meaning you are striving for.
- She hated, loathed, and despised him.
- The wind blew hard, raging across the open field.
- Joe was tall, towering over his teammates.